Reconstructive Surgery

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Reconstructive surgery is a type of surgery that is performed to restore or improve the function and/or appearance of a body part that has been affected by injury, disease, or a congenital condition. It is often used to repair or reconstruct areas of the body that have been damaged or lost due to trauma, cancer treatment, birth defects, or other medical conditions. Reconstructive surgery can involve a variety of techniques, including tissue transfer, grafting, and the use of implants or prosthetics. (1)

Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery: Blessing’s Story

Definition and Overview

Reconstructive surgery is a medical procedure that aims to correct or enhance the function and appearance of a body part that has been affected by an injury, disease, or congenital abnormality. This type of surgery is often used to treat conditions that have arisen due to birth defects, medical conditions, or trauma. Some common examples of reconstructive surgery are breast reconstruction and cleft lip and palate repair. The ultimate goal of reconstructive surgery is to improve the patient's quality of life and restore the affected body part as close to its normal appearance and function as possible. (2)


There are several types of reconstructive surgery procedures, including:

  • Breast reconstruction: This surgery is performed to restore one or both breasts to a normal shape, size, and appearance after a mastectomy or lumpectomy.
  • Cleft lip and palate repair: This surgery is performed to correct a birth defect in which there is an opening or split in the upper lip and/or roof of the mouth.
  • Burn reconstruction: This type of surgery is performed to repair the damage caused by burns, including skin grafting and scar revision.
  • Hand surgery: Hand reconstruction can be performed to restore function and appearance after an injury or condition affecting the hand.
  • Skin cancer reconstruction: This type of surgery is performed to remove cancerous skin tissue and reconstruct the area using skin grafts or flaps.
  • Facial reconstruction: This surgery is performed to repair facial deformities caused by injury, disease, or birth defects.
  • Gender affirmation surgery: This type of surgery is performed to help transgender individuals align their physical appearance with their gender identity.
  • Limb reconstruction: Limb reconstruction is performed to repair or reconstruct damaged bones, joints, or soft tissue in the arms or legs, often due to trauma or congenital conditions.
  • Abdominal wall reconstruction: This type of surgery is performed to repair defects in the abdominal wall, such as hernias or abdominal wall defects caused by surgery.

The specific type of surgery chosen will depend on the patient's individual needs and medical history. (3)


Patients who can benefit from reconstructive surgery may include 

  • those born with cleft lip or palate, 
  • individuals who have suffered severe burns, 
  • cancer patients who have undergone a mastectomy, 
  • and those who have experienced traumatic injuries resulting in disfigurement or functional impairment.

The decision to undergo reconstructive surgery is typically made in consultation with a board-certified plastic surgeon who will evaluate the patient's medical history, current health status, and specific needs. The surgeon will assess the feasibility of the surgery, discuss potential risks and benefits, and set realistic expectations for the outcomes of the procedure. (4,5)

Risks and Side Effects

Reconstructive surgery, like any surgery, carries potential risks and side effects. These can include:

  • Bleeding and infection: As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of excessive bleeding and infection at the site of surgery. This risk can be minimized by following proper surgical techniques and hygiene practices.
  • Anesthesia risks: Anesthesia is typically used during reconstructive surgery, and there is a small risk of complications such as allergic reactions, nausea, vomiting, and in rare cases, even death.
  • Scarring: Reconstructive surgery involves making incisions and manipulating tissue, which can result in scarring. The degree of scarring varies depending on the individual's healing ability, the extent of the surgery, and the surgeon's skill.
  • Numbness and sensory changes: Reconstructive surgery can sometimes result in numbness or changes in sensation in the area of surgery. This can be temporary or permanent.
  • Pain and discomfort: Pain and discomfort are common after reconstructive surgery, and medication can be prescribed to manage these symptoms.
  • Implant or graft failure: If an implant or graft is used in the surgery, there is a risk of rejection or failure. This risk can be minimized by carefully selecting the appropriate implant or graft material and ensuring proper surgical technique.

It is important to discuss these risks with a qualified cosmetic surgeon before undergoing reconstructive surgery. (6)

Post-Procedure and Follow-up

The post-procedure and follow-up process for reconstructive surgery can vary depending on the specific procedure performed and the individual patient's needs. However, there are some general guidelines and steps that are typically followed.

After the surgery, patients typically stay in the hospital for a few days to be monitored and to ensure that there are no complications. The length of stay can vary depending on the extent of the surgery and the type of reconstruction. Patients will be prescribed pain medications and may need to wear compression garments to aid in healing.

Proper wound care is crucial after reconstructive surgery. Patients will be given detailed instructions on how to care for their incisions and any drains that may be placed to remove excess fluid.

Patients will need to take it easy and avoid strenuous activities for a while after surgery. The length of time may vary depending on the type of reconstruction and the patient's recovery.

Patients will need to schedule regular follow-up appointments with their surgeons to monitor their progress and ensure that there are no complications.


Depending on the type of reconstruction, patients may need to undergo physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected area. Patients may need to make some adjustments to their daily routine, such as avoiding certain activities or wearing compression garments for an extended period of time.

Depending on the type of reconstruction, patients may need to continue to see their surgeon for regular monitoring and follow-up for an extended period of time to ensure the reconstruction is successful. Patients need to follow their surgeon's post-procedure and follow-up instructions carefully to ensure the best possible outcome and minimize the risk of complications.


Generally, the goal of reconstructive plastic surgery results in improving bodily functions. However, reconstructive plastic surgery can also be done (also called plastic surgery) to create a more normal appearance and increase self-confidence.

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